Windows Server 2016 技术预览 Hyper-V 新特性

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随着Windows 10的火热上市,按照以往的习惯,对应内核的Windows Server也离得不远了。下一版本是Windows Server 2016,目前已提供Technical Preview 3下载测试。

作为从Windows Server 2012开始成为Cloud OS的服务器操作系统,最让人关心的肯定是其在Hyper-V上的变化。TechNet站点已经有对应的内容,原始链接在:https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dn765471.aspx 直接把原文的翻译和理解注释在原文上比较好~

 

What’s new in Hyper-V in Technical Preview

Applies To: Windows Server Technical Preview

适用于:Windows Server 2016技术预览

This topic explains the new and changed functionality of the Hyper-V role in Windows Server® 2016 Technical Preview and Microsoft Hyper-V Server® Technical Preview.

本文描述Windows Server 2016技术预览中Hyper-V技术预览的新的或者变更的功能。

System_CAPS_importantImportant

To enable new features, you need to update existing virtual machines.

If you use virtual machines that were created with Windows Server 2012 R2, you won’t have access to new virtual machine features until you manually update the virtual machine configuration version. To upgrade the configuration version, shut down the virtual machine and then, at an elevated Windows PowerShell command prompt, type: Update-VmConfigurationVersion vmname or vmobject.

For important information about virtual machine configuration version, see Virtual machine configuration version.

重要:为了启用新的功能,您需要更新现有虚机。现有虚机需要关机,使用PowerShell命令行:Update-VmConfigurationVersion vmname or vmobject 升级虚机配置版本。

 

Rolling Hyper-V Cluster upgrade


You can now add a node running Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview to a Hyper-V Cluster with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2. The cluster continues to function at a Windows Server 2012 R2 feature level until you upgrade all of the nodes in the cluster and you upgrade the cluster functional level with the following Windows PowerShell cmdlet, Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.

System_CAPS_importantImportant

After you update the cluster functional level, you can’t downgrade the cluster functional level back to Windows Server 2012 R2.

When the Hyper-V Cluster has a mix of both Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview nodes, you can still move virtual machines between all of the nodes in the Hyper-V Cluster.

When the cluster functional level is Windows Server 2012 R2, the following applies to the Hyper-V Cluster:

  • You should manage the cluster, Hyper-V, and virtual machines from a node running Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview or Windows 10.

  • You can’t use new Hyper-V features until all of the nodes run Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview and you upgrade the cluster functional level.

  • The virtual machine configuration version for existing virtual machines aren’t upgraded. You can only upgrade the configuration version after you upgrade the cluster functional level.

  • Virtual machines that you create will be compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2, virtual machine configuration level 5.

After you upgrade the cluster functional level to Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview, the following applies:

  • To enable new virtual machine features, you need to manually upgrade the virtual machine configuration level of the virtual machines using the Update-VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet.

  • You can enable new Hyper-V features.

  • You can’t add a node to the Hyper-V Cluster that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.

System_CAPS_noteNote

Hyper-V on Windows 10 doesn’t support failover clustering.

For more information, see the Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade section in What’s New in Failover Clustering.

Hyper-V群集滚动升级。作为私有云的虚拟化平台,Hyper-V的部署往往是基于群集以实现其可靠性的。如果将系统从2012升级至2016,就面临着Hyper-V群集的在线升级。从描述来看,可以将新的Windows Server 2016群集节点加入到现有Windows Server 2012的群集中,等到所有节点都升级完成,再将群集功能级别从2012升级至2016。像以往功能级别的升级方式一样,该过程不可逆。升级到2016的功能级别之前,Hyper-V的新功能暂时无法使用,创建的虚机默认的配置级别5,和2012 R2一样。升级到2016的功能级别后,无法再向2016群集加入2012的节点。群集中虚机如果使用新功能,需要使用Update-VmConfigurationVersion 手动进行配置升级。借助PowerShell脚本,实现批量操作应该没有问题。升级群集的功能级别,可使用Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel命令。

 

Production checkpoints


Production checkpoints allow you to easily create “point in time” images of a virtual machine, which can be restored later on in a way that is completely supported for all production workloads. This is achieved by using backup technology inside the guest to create the checkpoint, instead of using saved state technology. For production checkpoints, the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS) is used inside Windows virtual machines. Linux virtual machines flush their file system buffers to create a file system consistent checkpoint. If you want to create checkpoints using saved state technology you can still choose to use standard checkpoints for your virtual machine.

System_CAPS_importantImportant

The default for new virtual machines will be to create production checkpoints with a fallback to standard checkpoints.

生产检查点。翻译有点怪。这个功能帮助快捷的建立虚机的时间点镜像。该镜像能够被恢复成完整承载生产环境负荷。和之前的保存状态的方式不同,在Windows虚机中,该功能现在使用VSS卷快照服务。在Linux虚机中,会把文件系统缓冲回写到一个文件系统一致性检查点。保存状态方式的检查点可以通过选择标准检查点方式继续使用。

 

Hot add and remove for network adapters and memory


You can now add or remove a Network Adapter while the virtual machine is running, without incurring downtime. This works for generation 2 virtual machines that run both Windows and Linux operating systems.

You can also adjust the amount of memory assigned to a virtual machine while it’s running, even if you haven’t enabled Dynamic Memory. This works for both generation 1 and generation 2 virtual machines.

虚机热插拔网卡和内存。第二代虚拟机无论运行Windows还是Linux将能够支持网卡的在线增删。内存(非动态内存)可在第一代/第二代虚机上在线在线增减。

 

Integration Services delivered through Windows Update


Shortly after the release of the Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview, updates to integration services for Windows guests will be distributed through Windows Update. For service providers and private cloud hosters, this will put control of updates into the hands of the tenants who own the virtual machines. Tenants can now update their Windows virtual machines with all updates, including the integration services, using a single method. For information about integration services for Linux guests, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V .

System_CAPS_importantImportant

The ISO image file vmguest.iso is no longer needed to update integration components. It isn’t included with Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview.

集成服务通过Windows Update交付。Windows来宾虚机的集成服务将通过Windows Update进行安装升级。对于不论是公有云还是私有云来说,升级的控制将交给虚机的租户自己控制。因此,用于安装集成服务的ISO文件vmguest.iso不再包含在Windows Server 2016 TP的Hyper-V中。Linux的集成服务,参看上面的链接。

多提一句。据称Citrix的集成服务XenTools,按照计划将在下一个版本的XenServer中,同样使用Windows Update进行更新。

 

Storage quality of service (QoS)


You can now create storage QoS policies on a Scale-Out File Server and assign them to one or more virtual disks on Hyper-V virtual machines. Storage performance is automatically readjusted to meet policies as the storage load fluctuates. For more information, see the Storage Quality of Service section in What’s New in Storage Services.

存储QoS。存储QoS往往被写入Hypervisor的招标参数。目前看Windows Server 2016的Hyper-V将通过在 Scale-Out文件服务器上把QoS策略关联至虚机的虚拟磁盘来实现。

 

Virtual machine configuration version


When you move or import a virtual machine to a server that runs Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview from Windows Server 2012 R2, the virtual machine’s configuration file isn’t automatically upgraded. This allows the virtual machine to be moved back to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2. You won’t have access to new virtual machine features until you manually update the virtual machine configuration version.

The virtual machine configuration version represents what version of Hyper-V the virtual machine’s configuration, saved state, and snapshot files it’s compatible with. Virtual machines with configuration version 5 are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2 and can run on both Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview. Virtual machines with configuration version 6 are compatible with Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview but won’t run in Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012 R2.

How do I check the configuration version of the virtual machines running on Hyper-V?

From an elevated Windows PowerShell command prompt, run the following command.

Get-VM * | Format-Table Name, Version

How do I upgrade the configuration version of a virtual machine?

From an elevated Windows PowerShell command prompt, run one of the following commands:

 

Update-VmConfigurationVersion vmname

Or

 

Update-VmConfigurationVersion vmobject

System_CAPS_importantImportant

  • After you upgrade the virtual machine configuration version, you can’t move the virtual machine to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.

  • You can’t downgrade the virtual machine configuration version back from version 6 to version 5.

  • Turn off the virtual machine to upgrade the virtual machine configuration.

  • The Update-VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet is blocked on a Hyper-V Cluster when the cluster functional level is Windows Server 2012 R2.

  • After the upgrade, the virtual machine will use the new configuration file format. For more information, see New virtual machine configuration file format.

虚机配置版本。这就是前面说Hyper-V群集升级等提到的虚机配置版本了。感觉上使用虚机配置版本来区分虚机是否支持2016 Hyper-V的新功能。MS考虑的还是比较仔细。当导入或者移动虚机到2016的Hyper-V时,虚机的配置版本并不会自动升级,这样可以避免平滑升级过程中一旦2016的节点出现问题,虚机可以迁移回其他2012节点。检查和升级虚机配置版本可以参考以上PowerShell命令。看起来升级虚机配置版本应该在全部节点升级到2016后进行,因为升级是不可逆的,升级完的虚机也无法在运行于2012的Hyper-V上。升级时需要关闭虚机,不过估计仅仅是更新数据库和配置meta data,应该很快。这里有个防呆设计,当群集级别为2012时,无法对虚机进行配置版本升级。配置文件格式在升级后会有所变化。

 

New virtual machine configuration file format


Virtual machines now have a new configuration file format which is designed to increase the efficiency of reading and writing virtual machine configuration data. It’s also designed to reduce the potential for data corruption in the event of a storage failure. The new configuration files use the .VMCX file extension for virtual machine configuration data and the .VMRS file extension for runtime state data.

System_CAPS_importantImportant

A file with the .VMCX file extension is in binary format. Directly editing a file with a .VMCX or .VMRS file extension isn’t supported.

新的虚机配置文件格式。升级虚机配置版本后,新的虚机配置文件使用.vmcx作为后缀。与以前相比,这是个二进制文件,意味着无法直接对虚机配置文件进行编辑了,对于很熟悉配置文件的管理员来说,是个坏消息。因为我就经常修改配置文件来简化工作。不过这也提高了虚机的安全性。

 

Hyper-V Manager improvements


  • Alternate credentials support – You can now use a different set of credentials in Hyper-V manager when you connect to another Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview or Windows 10 remote host. You can also choose to save these credentials to make it easier to log on again later.

  • Down-level management – With Hyper-V manager in the Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview and Windows 10, you can manage computers running Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1.

  • Updated management protocol – Hyper-V manager has been updated to communicate with remote Hyper-V hosts using the WS-MAN protocol, which permits CredSSP, Kerberos or NTLM authentication. When you use CredSSP to connect to a remote Hyper-V host, it allows you to perform a live migration without first enabling constrained delegation in Active Directory. The WS-MAN-based infrastructure also simplifies the configuration necessary to enable a host for remote management. WS-MAN connects over port 80 which is open by default.

Hyper-V管理器改进。终于,可以在同一个管理器中连接不同Hyper-V主机的时候使用不同凭据了~至于向下兼容早期版本的Hyper-V的管理,这是必须的。新的管理器使用叫做WS-MAN的连接协议,支持CredSSP、Kerberos或NTLM验证。使用CredSSP验证方式连接主机的时候,允许在没有AD委派的情况下进行Live Migration。WS-MAN能够简化管理架构,默认使用80端口。

对比XenServer的管理控制台——XenCenter,XC提供了充分的灵活性,由于MetaData存放于资源池(群集)Master上,XC的连接变得轻量级,连接时提供各个资源池的凭据即可。

 

Linux secure boot


Linux operating systems running on generation 2 virtual machines can now boot with the secure boot option enabled.  Ubuntu 14.04 and later, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12, are enabled for secure boot on hosts that run Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview. Before you boot the virtual machine for the first time, you must specify that the virtual machine should use the Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority.  To do this, at an elevated Windows Powershell prompt, type:

Set-VMFirmware vmname -SecureBootTemplate MicrosoftUEFICertificateAuthority

For more information about Linux virtual machines on Hyper-V, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V.

Linux的安全引导。第二代虚机的Linux系统,例如Ubuntu 14.04和SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12之后的版本,可以在第一次启动之前,指定虚机使用 Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority作为安全启动模板。

 

Compatible with Connected Standby


When the Hyper-V role is enabled on a computer that uses the Always On/Always Connected (AOAC) power model, the Connected Standby power state is now available.

连接就绪的支持。如果Hyper-V运行在使用了Always ON/Always Connected电源模式的计算机上,可以使用连接就绪的电源状态。

 

Windows PowerShell Direct


There is now an easy and reliable way to run Windows PowerShell commands inside a virtual machine from the host operating system. There are no network, firewall requirements, or special configuration. It works regardless of your remote management configuration. To use it, you must run Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview on the host and the virtual machine guest operating systems.

To create a PowerShell Direct session, use one of the following commands:

Enter-PSSession -VMName VMName
Invoke-Command -VMName VMName -ScriptBlock { commands }

Today, Hyper-V administrators rely on two categories of tools to connect to a virtual machine on a Hyper-V host:

  • Remote management tools such as PowerShell or Remote Desktop

  • Hyper-V Virtual Machine Connection (VMConnect)

Both of these technologies work well. But each have trade-offs as your Hyper-V deployment grows. VMConnect is reliable, but can be hard to automate. Remote PowerShell is powerful, but can be difficult to setup and maintain.

PowerShell Direct provides a powerful scripting and automation experience with the simplicity of VMConnect. PowerShell Direct runs between the host and the virtual machine. So you don’t need a network connection or to enable remote management. You do need guest credentials to log into the virtual machine.

Here’s what’s required to use PowerShell Direct:

  • You must be connected to a Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview host with virtual machines that run Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016 Technical Preview as the guest operating system.

  • You need to be logged in with Hyper-V administrator credentials on the host.

  • You need user credentials for the virtual machine.

  • The virtual machine that you want to connect to must run locally on the host and be booted.

PowerShell Direct。这个功能不错。能够直接给虚机运行PowerShell,不需要调整网络、防火墙之类。不过有个前提,就是宿主机和来宾虚机都得是Windows Server 2016或Windows 10。在PowerShell Direct出来之前,可以使用VMConnect连接管理虚机,当然除此之外也可以使用远程管理工具例如PowerShell远程执行或者RDS远程管理。2016的Hyper-V在原有VMConnect之上使用PowerShell来加强自动化。使用这个功能,还需要同时有宿主机管理员和虚机的用户的凭据。连接的虚机必须是在本地运行并且已经启动。

可以回忆一下,在Windows Server 2012发布的时候,安装系统组件就已经发生了很多变化。从以前的面向服务器安装,到增加了面向虚拟磁盘的安装方式。现在看,这条路还会继续走下去。更新服务和管理,一定会更加适应虚拟化方式。因为,私有云对这种管理方式有着需求。

此条目发表在Cloud Computing, Virtualization, Windows Server, 死磕和掰活分类目录,贴了, , 标签。将固定链接加入收藏夹。

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